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 Type 2 diabetes in children 2010

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PostSubject: Type 2 diabetes in children 2010   Type 2 diabetes in children 2010 EmptyTue Dec 28, 2010 7:08 pm


Type 2 diabetes in children is a chronic condition that affects the way your child's body metabolizes sugar (glucose).


Type 2 diabetes is a disease more commonly associated with adults. But type 2 diabetes in children is on the rise, fueled largely by the obesity epidemic.


There's plenty you can do to help manage or prevent type 2 diabetes in children. Encourage your child to eat healthy foods, get plenty of physical activity and maintain a healthy weight. If diet and exercise aren't enough, your child may need oral medication or insulin treatment to manage his or her blood sugar.

Symptoms
Type 2 diabetes in children may develop gradually. Some children who have type 2 diabetes have no signs or symptoms. Others experience:


Increased thirst and frequent urination. As excess sugar builds up in your child's bloodstream, fluid is pulled from the tissues. This may leave your child thirsty. As a result, your child may drink — and urinate — more than usual.
Increased hunger. Without enough insulin to move sugar into your child's cells, your child's muscles and organs become depleted for energy. This triggers intense hunger.
Weight loss. Despite eating more than usual to relieve hunger, your child may lose weight. Without the energy sugar supplies, muscle tissues and fat stores simply shrink.
Fatigue. If your child's cells are deprived of sugar, he or she may become tired and irritable.
Blurred vision. If your child's blood sugar is too high, fluid may be pulled from the lenses of your child's eyes. This may affect your child's ability to focus clearly.
Slow-healing sores or frequent infections. Type 2 diabetes affects your child's ability to heal and resist infections.
Areas of darkened skin. Some children who have type 2 diabetes have patches of dark, velvety skin in the folds and creases of their bodies — usually in the armpits and neck. This condition, called acanthosis nigricans, may be a sign of insulin resistance.
When to see a doctor
To diagnose type 2 diabetes before it does serious damage, diabetes screening is recommended for all children and adolescents at high risk of type 2 diabetes, even if they have no signs or symptoms of the condition. Those considered at high risk include children:


With a body mass index (BMI) over the 85th percentile
With a sibling, parent, grandparent, aunt, uncle or cousin with type 2 diabetes
Who are black, Hispanic, Native American or Asian-American, as these racial groups have a higher incidence of type 2 diabetes
With signs of insulin resistance, such as darkened skin on the neck
Talk to your child's doctor if you're concerned about diabetes or if you notice any of the signs or symptoms of type 2 diabetes — increased thirst and frequent urination, extreme hunger, weight loss, blurred vision, fatigue, slow-healing sores or frequent infections.



Causes
Type 2 diabetes develops when the body becomes resistant to insulin or when the pancreas stops producing enough insulin. Exactly why this happens is unknown, although excess weight and inactivity seem to be important factors.


Insulin: The key for sugar
Insulin is a hormone that comes from the pancreas, a gland located just behind the stomach. When your child eats, the pancreas secretes insulin into the bloodstream. As insulin circulates, it acts like a key by unlocking microscopic doors that allow sugar to enter your child's cells. Insulin lowers the amount of sugar in your child's bloodstream. As your child's blood sugar level drops, so does the secretion of insulin from the pancreas.


Glucose: The energy source
Glucose — sugar — is a main source of energy for the cells that make up muscles and other tissues. Glucose comes from two major sources: the food your child eats and your child's liver. During digestion, sugar is absorbed into the bloodstream. Normally, sugar then enters cells with the help of insulin.


Liver: Production and storage
The liver acts as a glucose storage and manufacturing center. When your child's insulin levels are low — when your child hasn't eaten in a while, for example — the liver releases the stored glucose to keep your child's glucose level within a normal range.


In type 2 diabetes, this process works improperly. Instead of moving into your child's cells, sugar builds up in his or her bloodstream. This occurs when your child's pancreas doesn't make enough insulin or your child's cells become resistant to the action of insulin.

Risk factors
Researchers don't fully understand why some children develop type 2 diabetes and others don't, even if they have similar risk factors. It's clear that certain factors increase the risk, however, including:


Weight. Being overweight is a primary risk factor for type 2 diabetes in children. The more fatty tissue a child has, the more resistant his or her cells become to insulin. The good news is that many children who have type 2 diabetes can improve their blood sugar levels simply by losing excess weight.
Inactivity. The less active your child is, the greater his or her risk of type 2 diabetes. Physical activity helps your child control his or her weight, uses glucose as energy, and makes your child's cells more responsive to insulin.
Family history. The risk of type 2 diabetes increases if a parent or sibling has type 2 diabetes — but it's difficult to tell if this is related to lifestyle, genetics or both.
Race. Although it's unclear why, children of certain races — especially blacks, Hispanics, American Indians and Asian-Americans — are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes.
Gender. Type 2 diabetes is more common in girls than in boys during childhood.

Complications
Type 2 diabetes can be easy to ignore, especially in the early stages when your child is feeling fine. But type 2 diabetes must be taken seriously. The condition can affect nearly every major organ in your child's body, including the heart, blood vessels, nerves, eyes and kidneys. Keeping your child's blood sugar level close to normal most of the time can dramatically reduce the risk of these complications.


The long-term complications of type 2 diabetes develop gradually. But eventually, diabetes complications may be disabling or even life-threatening.


Heart and blood vessel disease. Diabetes dramatically increases your child's risk of various cardiovascular problems, including coronary artery disease with chest pain (angina), heart attack, stroke, narrowing of the arteries (atherosclerosis) and high blood pressure.
Nerve damage (neuropathy). Excess sugar can injure the walls of the tiny blood vessels (capillaries) that nourish your child's nerves, especially in the legs. This can cause tingling, numbness, burning or pain that may begin at the tips of the toes or fingers and gradually spread upward. Left untreated, your child could lose all sense of feeling in the affected limbs.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Children with type 2 are more likely to develop nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, which can eventually lead to scarring of the liver and cirrhosis. Weight loss, along with good blood sugar control, may help this condition.
Kidney damage (nephropathy). The kidneys contain millions of tiny blood vessel clusters that filter waste from your child's blood. Diabetes can damage this delicate filtering system. The earlier diabetes develops, the greater the concern. Severe damage can lead to kidney failure or irreversible end-stage kidney disease, requiring dialysis or a kidney transplant.
Eye damage. Diabetes can damage the blood vessels of the retina (diabetic retinopathy). Diabetes can also lead to cataracts and a greater risk of glaucoma.
Foot damage. Nerve damage in the feet or poor blood flow to the feet increases the risk of various foot complications. Left untreated, cuts and blisters can become serious infections.
Skin conditions. Diabetes may leave your child more susceptible to skin problems, including bacterial infections, fungal infections and itching.

Preparing for your appointment
Your child's family doctor or pediatrician will probably make the initial diagnosis of diabetes. However, you'll likely then be referred to a doctor who specializes in metabolic disorders in children (pediatric endocrinologist). Your child's health care team will also generally include a nutritionist, a certified diabetes educator, and a doctor who specializes in eye care (ophthalmologist). If your child's blood sugar levels are very high, your doctor may send your child to the hospital for treatment.


Because appointments can be brief, and there's often a lot of ground to cover, it's a good idea to be well prepared for any appointments you have with your child's health care team. Here's some information to help you get ready for your appointment, and what you can expect from your doctor.


What you can do


Be aware of any pre-appointment restrictions. If your doctor is going to test your child's blood sugar, he or she will ask you to have your child refrain from eating or drinking anything but water for eight hours for a fasting glucose test or four hours for a pre-meal test. When you're making an appointment, ask if any type of fasting is necessary.
Write down any symptoms your child is experiencing, including any that may seem unrelated.
Ask a family member or friend to join you, if possible. Managing diabetes well requires you to retain a lot of information, and it can sometimes be difficult to soak up all the information provided to you during an appointment. Someone who accompanies you may remember something that you missed or forgot.
Bring a notebook and a pen or pencil, to write down important information.
Write down questions to ask your doctor.
Your time with your doctor is limited, so preparing a list of questions can help you make the most of your time together. List your questions from most important to least important in case time runs out. For type 2 diabetes in children, some basic questions to ask your doctor include:


Glucose monitoring


How often do I need to monitor my child's blood sugar? At what times should I check?
What is the goal range?
What should my child's blood sugar levels be before bed?
Lifestyle changes


What types of changes do we need to make to our family's diet?
How can I learn about counting carbohydrates in foods?
Should I see a dietitian to help with meal planning at home?
How much exercise should my child get each day?
Medications


Will my child need to take medicine? If so, what kind and how much?
Does the medicine need to be taken at any particular time of the day?
Does my child need to take insulin?
What types of insulin delivery options are available? Which do you recommend for my child and why? How should insulin be stored?
Complications


What are the signs and symptoms of low blood sugar?
How do I treat low blood sugar? How long should I wait before I retest?
What about high blood sugar — what are the signs and symptoms?
When should we test for ketones, and how do we do it?
What do we do if ketones are present?
My child has this other health condition. How can we best manage them together?
Medical management


How often does my child need to be monitored for diabetes complications? What specialists do we need to see?
What does my child's school need to know about managing diabetes? What about summer camp?
What precautions do you suggest I take if my child goes to a friend's house for a sleepover?
Are there any resources available if I'm having trouble paying for diabetes supplies?
Are there any brochures or other printed material that I can take home with me? What Web sites do you recommend visiting?
In addition to the questions that you've prepared to ask your doctor, don't hesitate to ask questions during your appointment at any time that you don't understand something.


What to expect from your doctor
Your doctor is likely to ask you a number of questions. Being ready to answer them may reserve time to go over any points you want to spend more time on. Your doctor may ask:


Do you feel confident about your child's treatment plan?
Any questions or concerns about his or her current situation?
How do you feel your child is coping with the diabetes and its treatment?
Has your child experienced any low blood sugars?
What's a typical day's diet like?
Is your child exercising? If so, how often?
On average, how much insulin are you using daily?
What you can do in the meantime
If your child's blood sugar isn't well controlled, or if you're not sure about what to do in a certain situation, don't hesitate to contact your child's doctor or diabetes educator in between appointments for advice and guidance.



Tests and diagnosis
If your child's doctor suspects diabetes, he or she will recommend a screening test. The primary test used to diagnose diabetes in children is the:


Random blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken at a random time. Regardless of when your child last ate, a random blood sugar level of 200 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or higher suggests diabetes.
If your child's random blood sugar test results don't suggest diabetes, but your doctor still suspects it, your doctor may do a:


Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test. This blood test indicates an average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. It works by measuring the percentage of blood sugar attached to hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells. The higher the blood sugar levels, the more hemoglobin that has sugar attached. An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on two separate tests indicates diabetes. A result between 6 and 6.5 percent is considered prediabetes, which indicates a high risk of developing diabetes.
Another test your doctor might use is a fasting blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken after an overnight fast. A fasting blood sugar level less than 100 mg/dL is normal. A fasting blood sugar level from 100 to 125 mg/dL is considered prediabetes. If it's 126 mg/dL or higher on two separate tests, your child will be diagnosed with diabetes.


Your doctor may also perform an oral glucose tolerance test. For this test, your child fasts overnight, and the fasting blood sugar level is measured. Then, your child drinks a sugary liquid, and blood sugar levels are tested periodically for the next several hours. A reading of more than 200 mg/dL after two hours indicates diabetes. A reading between 140 and 199 mg/dL indicates prediabetes.


If your child is diagnosed with diabetes, the doctor may do other tests to distinguish between type 1 and type 2 diabetes — which often require different treatment strategies because in type 1 diabetes, the pancreas no longer makes insulin.


After the diagnosis
At first, your child may need frequent — once a month or more — visits. Once your child's blood sugar is stabilized, he or she will regularly visit his or her doctor to ensure good diabetes management.


Your child's doctor will also check your child's A1C levels periodically. Your child's target A1C goal may vary depending on his or her age and various other factors. Ask your doctor what your child's A1C target is.


The American Diabetes Association has introduced a formula that translates the A1C into what's known as an estimated average glucose (eAG). The eAG more closely correlates with daily blood sugar readings. An A1C of 7 percent translates to an eAG of 154 mg/dL. That would mean that your child's average blood sugar levels are around 150 mg/dL.


Compared with repeated daily blood sugar tests, A1C testing better indicates how well your child's diabetes treatment plan is working. An elevated A1C level may signal the need for a change in your child's insulin regimen or meal plan.


Other periodic tests
In addition to the A1C test, the doctor will also take blood and urine samples periodically to check your child's cholesterol levels, thyroid function, liver function and kidney function. The doctor will also examine your child to assess his or her blood pressure and make sure he or she is growing properly. Regular eye exams also are important.

Treatments and drugs
Treatment for type 2 diabetes is a lifelong commitment of blood sugar monitoring, healthy eating, regular exercise and, sometimes, insulin or other medications — even for kids. And as your child grows and changes, so will his or her diabetes treatment plan.


If managing your child's diabetes seems overwhelming, take it one day at a time. And remember that you're not in it alone. You'll work closely with your child's diabetes treatment team — doctor, diabetes educator and registered dietitian — to keep your child's blood sugar level as close to normal as possible.


Blood sugar monitoring
Depending on what type of insulin therapy your child needs, you may need to check and record your child's blood sugar at least three times a day, but probably more. This usually requires frequent finger sticks, though some blood glucose meters allow for testing at other sites.


Frequent testing is the only way to make sure that your child's blood sugar level remains within his or her target range — which may change as your child grows and changes. Your child's doctor will let you know what your child's blood sugar target range is. The doctor may ask you to keep a log of your child's blood glucose readings, or he or she may download that information from your blood glucose meter.


Even if your child eats on a rigid schedule, the amount of sugar in his or her blood can change unpredictably. With help from your child's diabetes treatment team, you'll learn how your child's blood sugar level changes in response to:


Food. What and how much your child eats will affect your child's blood sugar level.
Physical activity. Physical activity moves sugar from your child's blood into his or her cells. The more active your child is, the lower his or her blood sugar level.
Medication. Any medications your child takes may affect his or her blood sugar level, sometimes requiring changes in your child's diabetes treatment plan.
Illness. During a cold or other illness, your child's body will produce hormones that raise his or her blood sugar level.
Healthy eating
Contrary to popular perception, there's no diabetes diet. Your child won't be restricted to a lifetime of boring, bland foods. Instead, your child will need plenty of fruits, vegetables and whole grains — foods that are high in nutrition and low in fat and calories — and fewer animal products and sweets. In fact, it's the best eating plan for the entire family. Even sugary foods are OK once in a while, as long as they're included in your child's meal plan.


Yet understanding what and how much to feed your child can be a challenge. A registered dietitian can help you create a meal plan that fits your child's health goals, food preferences and lifestyle. If your child is overweight or obese, gradual weight reduction will be a goal.


Physical activity
Everyone needs regular aerobic exercise, and children who have type 2 diabetes are no exception. Encourage your child to get regular physical activity. Sign up for a sports team or dance lessons. Better yet, get in the act together. Play catch in the backyard. Take a walk or run through your neighborhood. Visit an indoor climbing wall or local pool. Make physical activity part of your child's daily routine.


Remember that physical activity lowers blood sugar. If your child needs insulin treatment, check your child's blood sugar level before any activity. He or she might need a snack before exercising to help prevent low blood sugar.


Medication and insulin
Some children who have type 2 diabetes can control their blood sugar with diet and exercise alone, but many also need oral medication or insulin treatment.


Metformin is the only oral medication that's approved for children (age 10 and older) who have type 2 diabetes. Metformin reduces the amount of sugar a child's liver releases into the bloodstream between meals. Side effects may include nausea, upset stomach, diarrhea and, rarely, a harmful buildup of lactic acid (lactic acidosis). Metformin isn't safe for anyone who has liver failure, kidney failure or heart failure.


Because stomach enzymes interfere with insulin taken by mouth, oral insulin isn't an option for lowering blood sugar. Therefore, insulin has to be delivered under the skin. Insulin delivery options include:


Injections. Usually, insulin delivery means injections using a fine needle and syringe or an insulin pen — a device that looks like an ink pen, except the cartridge is filled with insulin.
Insulin pump. An insulin pump also may be an option for some children. The pump is a device about the size of a cell phone worn on the outside of the body. A tube connects the reservoir of insulin to a catheter that's inserted under the skin of the abdomen. A wireless pump that uses small pods filled with insulin is another option that's now available. The pump is programmed to dispense specific amounts of insulin automatically. It can be adjusted to deliver more or less insulin depending on meals, activity level and blood sugar level.
Many types of insulin are available, including rapid-acting insulin, long-acting insulin and intermediate options. Examples include regular insulin (Humulin R, Novolin R, others), NPH insulin (Humulin N, Novolin N), insulin lispro (Humalog), insulin aspart (NovoLog) and insulin glargine (Lantus). Depending on your child's needs, the doctor may prescribe a mixture of insulin types to use throughout the day and night.


The decision about which treatment is best depends on the child, his or her blood sugar level, and the presence of any other health problems. Initially, children whose blood sugar is above 200 or who have an A1C above 8.5 percent will likely be started on insulin therapy to stabilize the blood sugar. Once blood sugar levels are normalized, your child may be weaned off insulin and placed on metformin alone.


However, if blood sugar isn't well-controlled on metformin and lifestyle changes, insulin will have to be given again. A long-acting insulin, such as insulin glargine, is often used for type 2 diabetes in children.


Signs of trouble
Short-term complications of type 2 diabetes require immediate care, including:


Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). If your child's blood sugar level drops below his or her target range, it's known as low blood sugar. Your child's blood sugar level can drop for many reasons, including skipping a meal, getting more physical activity than normal or injecting too much insulin. Watch for early signs and symptoms of low blood sugar, including sweating, shakiness, drowsiness, hunger, dizziness and nausea. Later signs and symptoms include behavior changes, confusion, and passing out.


If your child has signs or symptoms of low blood sugar, give him or her fruit juice, glucose tablets, hard candy, regular (not diet) soda or another source of sugar, and then recheck the blood sugar levels in 15 minutes. If the blood sugar reading is still low, give your child another fast-acting source of sugar, and retest again in 15 minutes. Once the blood sugar reaches a normal level, give your child a mixed food snack, such as peanut butter and crackers, to stabilize the blood sugar levels.


If your child loses consciousness, he or she may need an emergency injection of glucagon — a hormone that stimulates the release of sugar into the blood. This is a medical emergency.


High blood sugar (hyperglycemia). Likewise, your child's blood sugar can rise for many reasons, including eating too much, not taking enough insulin or illness. Watch for frequent urination, increased thirst, dry mouth, blurred vision, fatigue and nausea. If you suspect hyperglycemia, check your child's blood sugar. You might need to adjust your child's meal plan or medications. If your child's blood sugar is dangerously high, call your child's doctor right away or seek emergency care.
Increased ketones in your child's urine (diabetic ketoacidosis). If your child's cells are starved for energy, your child's body may begin to break down fat — producing toxic acids known as ketones. Although this condition is more common in children with type 1 diabetes, it can occur in children with type 2. Watch for loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, fever, stomach pain and a sweet, fruity smell on your child's breath. If you suspect ketoacidosis, check your child's urine for excess ketones with an over-the-counter ketones test kit. If your child has excess ketones in his or her urine, call your child's doctor right away or seek emergency care.

Coping and support
Type 2 diabetes is a serious disease. Helping your child follow his or her diabetes treatment plan takes round-the-clock commitment. But your efforts are worthwhile. Careful management of type 2 diabetes can reduce your child's risk of serious — even life-threatening — complications.


Counseling and support
Talking to a counselor or therapist may help your child or you to cope with the lifestyle changes that come with a type 2 diabetes diagnosis. Your child may find encouragement and understanding in a type 2 diabetes support group for children. Support groups for parents also are available. Although support groups aren't for everyone, they can be good sources of information. Group members often know about the latest treatments and tend to share their own experiences, or helpful information, such as where to find carbohydrate counts for your child's favorite takeout restaurant. If you're interested, your doctor may be able to recommend a group in your area.


Or, you can visit the American Diabetes Association to check out local activities for people with type 2 diabetes. The American Diabetes Association also offers diabetes camp programs, online information, and an online forum for children and teens with diabetes.


Getting your child actively involved
As your child gets older, encourage him or her to take an increasingly active role in diabetes management. Teach your child how to test his or her blood sugar and, if needed, inject insulin. Stress the importance of lifelong diabetes care, which is particularly important for teens to understand as they may rebel against their diabetes care regimen. Foster a relationship between your child and his or her diabetes treatment team. Make sure your child wears a medical ID tag.


Above all, stay positive. The habits you teach your child today will help him or her enjoy an active and healthy life with type 2 diabetes.

Prevention
Healthy lifestyle choices can help prevent type 2 diabetes in children and its complications. Encourage your child to:


Eat healthy foods. Offer your child foods low in fat and calories. Focus on fruits, vegetables and whole grains. Strive for variety to prevent boredom.
Get more physical activity. Encourage your child to get active. Sign up for a sports team or dance lessons, or look for active things to do together.
Lose excess pounds. Help your child make permanent changes in his or her eating and exercise habits.
Better yet, make it a family affair. The same lifestyle choices that can help prevent type 2 diabetes in children can do the same for adults.
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